Tuesday, June 9, 2020
Critically discuss the evidence underlying the claim that the deterioration of economic conditions that usually results from family disruption is the major explanation for the lower ability and achievement of children in disrupted families. This paper considers whether, and to what extent, the deteriorated economic situations caused through family disruptions and economic deprivations are the main reasons for childrens lower competences and attainments. Firstly, the association between disrupted family and economic circumstances are considered in line with some recent economic theory. Secondly, the reasons why economic circumstances arising from family disruptions are identified as being the foremost predictors for lower ability and attainment of children in disrupted families. This claim is examined. In addition, issues within previous studies are then investigated. Lastly, the implications for enhancing childrens outcomes regarding this issue are also discussed. How family disruptions are linked to deteriorated economic conditions Due to a dramatic change of family structure in modern societies, questions about the impact of family disruptions (e.g. separation/divorce, step-parenting, remarriage) on economic conditions, measured by home ownership, income and size of the residence, have appeared to be increasingly significant. There have been a number of studies explaining the relationship between disruptions in family life and economic circumstances. Numerous longitudinal and cross sectional research reveals that disruptive events in families cause economic disadvantage (e.g. Amato, 2000; Duncan, Yeung, Brooks-Gunn and Smith, 1998). Divorced individuals typically have greater economic deprivation than married individuals (Marks, 1996; Ross, 1995). Researchers have reported that women are likely to have more serious problems with economic consequences in comparison with men (e.g. Holden and Smock, 1991; Ross, 1995; Smock 1994) and that lone mothers are considered to be in the poorest situations after separation or divorce (Ram and Hou, 2003). For example, the longitudinal study of Bianchi, Subaiya and Kahn (1999); focusing on the gender gap in economic well-being among the couples with children after family disruptions in the United States, found that there was a 36% decline in living standard of custodial mothers, whilst noncustodial fathers experienced a 28% increase. It can be seen that in general, mothers post-divorced standards of living was merely a half that of the fathers. Moreover, to compare with divorced men or married women, lone mothers tend to have more monetary problems over longer period. Amato (2000) explains this incidence that women, compared with men, have more interrupted work histories prior to divorce, experience greater workfamily conflict (due to their responsibility for children), and are more likely to experience employment and wage discrimination (p.1277). However, the deleterious economic conditions can be relieved in step-parent families (Amato, 2000) Why is economic deprivation from family disruptions claimed to be the major predictors for low outcomes of children? Over the last few decades, researchers have focused attention on the economic consequences of changes in family structure, identifying family disruptions as key causal explanations for lower childrens outcomes. It has been found that the deterioration of economic conditions, caused by disruptive events in the family such as single-parenting and divorce are greatly related to negative outcomes among children (Pearson and Thoennes, 1990; Bronstein, Stoll, Clauson, Abrams and Briones, 1994; McLanahan and Sandefur, 1994; Duncan, Brooks-Gunn, Yeung and Smith, 1998; Gue, 1998; Amato, 2000; Ram and Hou, 2003). Household income is often considered to be significant in explaining childrens outcomes (Mulkey, Crain, Harrington, 1992). Congruent with the explanation of Haveman and Wolfe (1995) The income level of the family in which a child grows up is perhaps the best measure of the level of economic resources devoted to the child by the parents, and is often included in the studies of childrens educational attainment (p. 1855). It is well known that different types of family have different effects on childrens ability and outcomes due to their differing economic situations (Schneider et al., 2005). Intact families usually have more income than single-parent families, and this advantage becomes a part of developing childrens educational outcomes (McLeod and Shanahan, 1993; Duncan et al., 1998; Schneider, Atteberry, Owens, 2005). On the other hand, children from single parent-households have more limitations in economic resources in comparison with children from intact families. Single parents, particularly lone mothers often spend more time outside of the home to compensate for the economic loss due to separation or divorce. This is likely to affect childrens ability and academic outcomes because of reducing time for involvement with their children. Parents who have lower incomes due to a separation or divorce are less able to provide their children with material resources such as school equipment, computers and extra lessons (Ross, 2005) Negative impacts on academic achievement of children related to living in separated families, often results from reduced provision of economic resources. Boggges (1998) has suggested that there are few effects on childrens academic performance when the economic status is controlled in research, achievement were found. However, persistent negative effects on graduation rates were found. In addition, Schneider et al. (2005) argues that although step-parenting families (non-traditional families) are often more advantaged in economic resources, the outcomes of the children remain lower than the outcomes of children from traditional families. This is because step parents may not provide step children with the resources like they might towards their biological children (Schneider et al., 2005). Ram and Hou (2003) similarly propose that children in step families are no different from those raised in lone-parent families in a number of spheres, including cognitive skills, hyperactivity, and indirect aggression, even after economic condition and familial resource variables when held constant (p. 326). This is commonly compatible with the studies of some researchers who found children from step families less well performing in school and exhibiting more emotional and behavioural difficulties (Coleman, Ganong, and Fine, 2000; Hanson, McLanahan, and Thomson, 1997; McLanahan and Sanderfur, 1994; McMunn, Nazroo., Marmot, Boreham and Goodman, 2001) In addition, children who live with other types of two-parent households, such as with grandparents or relatives, are also likely to have more disadvantages than children living in intact households, and the same or lower level than children in lone-parent households (Chase-Lansdale, Brooks-Gunn and Zamsky, 1994). According to Downey (1994), although children in lone-mother families often lack economic resources, some children in lone-father families have problems with a deficiency of interpersonal resources such as involvement in childrens tasks. He also suggests that childrens outcomes in both types of family are roughly equal (Downey, 1994). Moreover, it was found that children who live with the same gender or opposite gender parents slightly differ in outcomes. While economic situations have often been considered as the most significant factors in explaining childrens outcomes of the disruptive families, the study of Kerr and Beaujot (2001) investigating Canadian children found that there are low income is less important than other factors such as the function of family, number of children in households, educational level and age of the parents. Similarly, Mulkey et al (1992) argue that economic conditions are not a significant mediator between lone-parent families and the low attainment of children. They also state that living in lone-mother households is not more detrimental than living in lone-father families, and income is not the major issue explaining the relationship between family structure and childrens academic performance. Problems with the studies The findings of some studies have been ambiguous when indicating the association between family structure changes and childrens outcomes. For example, do deteriorated economic conditions in disruptive families often affect the childs educational outcomes? Or do children with lower ability or lower attainments usually come from families with monetary problems? In addition, the prior problems before parental divorce or separation are often neglected. According to longitudinal research by Ram and Hou (2003) children of several disruptive families were already registering academic difficulties. Second, there is little specific mention regarding the time within the lifecycle of the child of the deteriorated economic situations. Duncan et al. (1998) suggest that the economic situations amongst children in the early years have the most influential impact on attainment, especially among children in low-income families (Cherlin, Chase-Lansdale and McRae, 1998; Duncan et al., 1998; Amato and Sobolewski, 2001). This should be different from the findings derived from adolescents. Therefore, a clearer specification of period when economic deprivation takes place should be inserted. Third, the comparisons of income across different types of households are ambiguous. There is an unclear distinction between the income before disruptions and the income after disruptions. For example, some families may have financial problems before disruptions. Furthermore, the stability of income also should be considered because earning cycles in each family differ, and may vary across the year. Lastly, it can be seen that ethical considerations are not adequately addressed in a number of studies even though the research touches upon highly sensitive areas of family life and predictions of childrens achievement. Such matters are usually quite confidential and the complicated relationship that might negatively affect the subjects, so the reader needs to know how the data for the research was gathered and in what conditions. For example, the protection and welfare of the participants, the use of deception, confidentiality and the anonymity of data are issues that should have been addressed and considered more fully in order that subsequent research operates within accepted ethical boundaries. Implications Public policy Public policy should be more focused on the welfare of single-parent families, particularly lone-mothers. As several studies have reported, single-mothers or custodial mothers are more likely to have more financial problems than any other types of family (e.g. Holden and Smock, 1991; Ross, 1995; Smock 1994). After disruptions, they have to spend more time outside of the home in order to earn money to compensate for the loss of family income. This association in single-parent families seems to be unrelieved until re-marriage happens. In addition, if income can be considered as a significant factor in predicting childrens later achievement, it also acts as the resource to provide the means for their progression. One implication of these findings is the need for critical considerations about higher pay for women and income support programmes, in particular, for single mothers who have to bring up their children on their own to assist them cope with problems derived from economic depriva tion after disruptions. Also, more extensive child care and support should be provided in order to meet the needs of these children. Schools Teachers should be more deliberately concerned with their reactions and behaviour to children from lower income families. Some teachers tend to react to such children differently due to their economic backgrounds (Mulkey et al., 1992). In addition, the understanding of misbehaviour of the student is important. Some inappropriate behaviours of students in classrooms may occur due to depression or bereavement from disruptive events in their family. Therefore, whenever the behavioural problems of students appear, instead of focusing on them only, teachers should consider the contexts of students such as family backgrounds in order to prevent misunderstanding as well as find the way to assist and support children. Furthermore, teachers in schools should have more concern and care about their own behaviours as a role model for all students because the students, especially the children in their early years tend to observe and replicate teachers behaviours. Parents Parents are the individuals who are likely to be the most influential role models for childrens lives. A careful family plan may be one strategy to ensure stability for the child. The home environment should also be considered because it is a significant source of learning. The quality of the home environment its opportunities for learning, the warmth of mother-child interactions, and the physical condition of the home accounts for a substantial portion of the powerful effects of family income on cognitive outcomes (Duncan et al., 1998, p.209). Furthermore, having a stable level of income is important because low and unstable income leads to economic pressures that may cause conflict between partners experiencing serious financial issues (Conger et al., 1993). The income level of the family is a powerful predictor of the economic pressure that has both direct and indirect impacts on childrens achievement (Duncan et al, 1998). Conflicting or disruptive events in the families can als o be traumatising events for children. Parents should avoid using force and presenting unpleasant behaviours at home and in front of the children, because it may be the cause of later aggressive behaviours from children. Conclusion It appears in several studies that economic conditions are the significant explanations for the association between family structure and childrens achievement. The diminution of material resources due to deteriorated economic conditions, which often derive from disruptive events in families, has significant impacts on educational outcomes of children (Ram and Hou, 2003). In several studies, when income is restricted, children in disrupted families tend to have lower attainments than children in intact or non-divorced families. Research reports that the majority of children in intact families are at an academic and social advantage in comparison with children in non-intact families. A childs achievement generally depends on the economic resources that are given by parents, children who live in an intact family tend to have high attainments. This is because lone-parents have less income and have less time to be involved in household activities such as helping children to do their homework. This leads to the lower outcomes of children. Children who grow up in lone-mother families tend to have the lowest attainments in comparison with growing in other types of families. In addition, although children who live with step families have opportunities to have more economic resources than those who live with single-parent families, the researchers state that there is no difference between the educational outcomes of children in lone families and the child outcomes in step-parenting families (Coleman et al, 2001; Hen son et al, 1997; Ram and Hou, 2003). It might therefore be concluded that the deterioration of economic circumstances after separation or divorce may explain part, but by no means all, of the lower outcomes among children who have experienced parental disruptions.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Everyone has their own interpretation and theories behind books, movies, etc. In Darren AronofskyÃ¢â¬â¢s 2010 movie Ã¢â¬Å"Black SwanÃ¢â¬ I believe there are many different theories that could explain what is behind the bazaar psychological thriller. Some peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s theories are behind the mother-daughter relationship which would in Psychological terms deal with attachment. There are also theories behind eating disorders and stress which could cause mental disorders and personality disorders. Are mental illnesses and personality disorders the same? Watching the movie with different theories in mind, I believe that we can roll all the theories into one and come up with one Psychological illness or diagnoses. First letÃ¢â¬â¢s start with a quick plot ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Some theories of the movie are that Lily and NinaÃ¢â¬â¢s mother are two of NinaÃ¢â¬â¢s multiple personalities. The movie does not mention anything of NinaÃ¢â¬â¢s child hood or any trauma she had in her life so I think there is little to prove it could be Dissociative Identity Disorder. Schizophrenia is a brain disorder in which people interpret reality abnormally. Schizophrenia may result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking and behavior. Because Schizophrenia means Ã¢â¬Å"split mindÃ¢â¬ many people think this means split personality, but it refers to a split from reality that shows itself in disorganized thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions. (Myers, 2010) in the Psychology Ninth edition Myers show a table of Subtypes of Schizophrenia: Paranoid, Disorganized, Catatonic, Undifferentiated, and Residual. There are plenty of reasons and facts throughout the movie that prove Nina to be delusional, having hallucinations and being paranoid. Throughout the movie Nina sees people as other people and as herself. She sees people and pictures and her own reflection laughing at her. And she even harms herself only to see minutes later there was no harm done, again she was seeing things. Also it see ms her mother could also have signs as a schizophrenic with the paranoia she has for her daughter and not to mention all the pictures she paints of
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Spread of HIV/AIDs in Sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa has been singled out as having the most serious HIV epidemic in the world. There is need to curb the spread of HIV in the continent by leveraging the knowledge and skills necessary to understand the factors responsible for the spread of the disease. This paper attempts to investigate the risk factors involved in the spread of HIV and how to reduce HIV prevalence regardless of these risks factors. The paper then goes a step further and explains how HIV might may- and might may not - be contained. The paper concludes by proposing measures to help curb the spread of HIV/AIDS in Africa. Ã¢â¬Å"With about 25 million people living with HIV Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for about 70 percentÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The HIV epidemic has mainly been concentrated amongst the most economically depleted regions of Africa and, within affected countries; HIV infection is more prevalent in the most marginalized groups. Poverty, disease, famine, political and economic instability, and socioeconomic inequalities continue to aggravate the epidemic on the continent. The positive correlation between poverty and HIV/AIDS can be seen time and time again due to the intensity and transmission of the epidemic having strong links with poverty (Mohammad). Malnutrition, which goes hand in hand with poverty, takes a toll on the immune system resulting in individuals becoming more susceptible to infectious diseases. Not only that, those infected with HIV are more likely to become deprived due to a decline in personal productivity and expensive treatment. Struggles between warring factions for political and economic power and control over natural resources led to armed conflicts that continue till this day (Zaryab and Zorn).Ã¢â¬Å"Armed conflict is a key contributor to the transmission of HIV as it breaks down economic and social infrastructures, internal
Question: Advise Violet and Sonny of their potential liability to Friendly Bank in relation to the Busy Bee Florist Shop. Answer: Introduction To provide advice to Violet and Sonny concerning their liability that is owed to the friendly Bank in regard to Busy Bee Florist Shop, it is vital to understand that whether any kind of partnership prevailed between the Violet and Busy Bee Florist Shop and Sony and Busy Bee Florist Shop. The case study brings forward the question whether any partnership existed in the present context between the Sonny, Violet, Rosy and Mary. As defined under the partnership act 1892, sharing of profit represents an existence of the existence of the partnership (Calabretta May, 2016). An exception to the rule of the partnership defines that creditors are protected from this rule unless there contains any element in the partnership act. Discussion: A partnership can be defined as the relationship that prevailed between the persons that performs the activities of business in common with the objective of deriving profit. As held in the case of Green v Beesley (1835) it has been stated that a contract amid two or more persons to engaged in a partnership having a lawfully binding association and possess the necessary character of contractual in nature (Latimer, 2016). In the present context it is evident that Sonny is regarded as the employee and lender for Rose and Mary Busy Bee Florist Shop and Sonny will not be considered as the partner. As held in the study of Smith v Anderson (1880) the members does not make a lawful unit at the time of establishing a partnership (Blackett-Ord Haren, 2015). An ordinary partnership can be defined as the partnership of certain persons that are destined together with the agreement amid themselves to endure the object of entering into the contract with one another (Winship, 2015). As defined under the section 1 of the partnership Act of 1982 lays down that are three elements that needs to be satisfied to establish the relationship between the partners. The elements comprise of the following; Performing the activities of a business In common With the objective of earning profit If any of the above element is absent from the association is not considered to be partnership (Norbury, 2017). Therefore, Sonny is only the lender of the business and cannot be treated as the partners since Sonny does not have any knowledge of the debt from the Friendly Bank therefore he will not be regarded as the partner under the Partnership Act 1892. On the other hand, Violets case is identical to the case of Megevand; Ex parte Delhasse (1878) in which the court laid down its judgement by stating that the creditor or the partner of the concerned business is provided with the right of controlling the business (Mukherjee, 2015). Additionally, Violet also held the right of the dormant business partner with the right of sharing profit and loss. as evident from the case of violet it can be stated that she holds the right of the partner a right to share profit, to examine the books of the company and the right of receiving a quarterly business statement together with the right of sharing the partners liability of the loss. Violet will be in fact regarded as the partner in addition to the business for being a lender, though it is evidently laid down in the agreement of loan that Violet being the lender will not be treated as the partner of the business. However, the loan taken by Rosy and Mary for busy bee florist shop from Sonny and Violet represents a nature of debt that is owed to them. An assertion can be bought forward by stating that Sonny is not regarded as partner under Section 1 of the Partnership Act 1892 (NSW) (Gretton Steven, 2017). Therefore, Sonny does not have any liability of paying the debt to t he Friendly Bank in regard to the Busy Bee Florist Shop. Additionally, the elements of Section 1 of the partnership Act 1892 (NSW) is also missing from the case of Sonny and did not amounted to perform the activities of business in common for the loan provided to Busy Bee Florist Shop (Fleischer, 2017). Considering the judgement of the court in the case of Television Broadcasters Ltd v Ashtons Nominees Pty Ltd (1979) it is being held that joint venture for promoting the tour of a circus did not make the applicants as the partners (Cohen, 2017). The court in its judgements stated that even though the applicants became the joint ventures with the objective of earning profit. The agreement however did not contain any kind of provision for the allocation of loss and most prominently, the corresponding commitments comprised of the contract that were considered as the distinct requirements. Additional evidences if lack of partnership was laid down by the court in the case of Exparte Coral Investments Pty Ltd  which presented the circumstance that workers were considered as the workers of the respondent and not regarded as the employees of the applicants cooperatively (McMeeking et al., 2017). From the current situation of Sonny, it can be defined that she will not be considered a partner for Busy Bee Florist Shop. Additionally, she will not be held accountable for the debt that is owed to Rosy and Mary since Sonny is not regarded as the partner under the Section 1 of the Partnership Act 1892 (NSW) (Kumar, 2016). On the other hand, in case of the Violet it can be stated that She will be regarded as the partners since she held right of sharing profit, business statement and evaluating the books of the partnerships. Therefore, the debt owed by Rosy and Mary to Friendly Bank will also extend to Violet since is regarded as the partner under Section 1 of the Partnership Act 1892 because the elements of partnership is satisfied by her (Singh, 2015). As defined under the Partnership Act 1892 (NSW) each partner in the business is held equally liable with all the other partners for the all the debts along with the requirements of the entity that is experienced at the time of carrying on of a partnership and following the death of the partner (Moll, 2015). Additionally, after the death of the partner his or her estate will be additionally held liable in the due course of the management of the debt and commitments so far as they continue in the course of the partnership. Therefore, under the circumstanc es of the Violet will be regarded as the partners of Busy Bee Florist Shop. Citing the reference of Lang v James Morrison Co Ltd (1911) 13 CLR 1 at 11 the main reason for considering Violet as the partners for Busy Bee Florist Shop at the time of acting as the partners in the course of the partnership business, Violet is in this case acting as the agent for one another (Corkery et al., 2017). An example for the above stated has been laid down in the case of United Dominions Corporation Ltd v Brian Pty Ltd and others (1985) where a lone activities carried out by the parties were regarded as the partnership under the Partnership Act 1892 (NSW). The court in its judgement stated that the respondent was indulged in the activities of land development which it was purchasing it from Brisbane (Chen et al., 2016). The respondent also shared a profit of 20% in the venture of the hotel and was regarded as the participant of both the ventures however the respondent was regarded as the major participant in each of the proposed venture. Citing the reference of Smith v Anderson (1880) the activities of Violet amounts to partnership and performing the activities of business with the component of steadiness or recurrence in contrast to the isolated transaction which cannot be considered as repeated (Singh, 2015). The conclusion of the court of law in the case of Canny Gabriel Castle Jackson Advertising Pty Ltd v Volume Sales (Finance) Pty Ltd (1974) defined that stress will be placed upon the endurance that might not be substantial. This position of Violent was regarded to be consistent with the Ruddock (1879) 5 VLR who performed the activities of business of sole trader and being obligated to his grandmother Mrs Bear and one of his employees (Moll, 2015). The court later provided that even though Mrs Bear did not take participated actively in the regular business management activities of the business, she will be regarded as the partner of the business and could not substantiate against the estate of being considered as the bankrupt debtor in competition with the other creditor. The general principles of the authorities of the court stated that a right to the participate in the profits will be regarded as the partner and notwithstanding the stipulations of being considered as the dormant partners or not liable to losses. The evidences from the case of Ruddock (1879) 5 VLR represents that the relation of associates is the outcome of their individual considerable rights and the outcome that the partnership liability from the sharing of revenues cannot be avoided in the form of conveyance (Gretton Steven, 2017). In the succeeding matters of Violet and Busy Bee Florist Shop it can be stated that they will be considered as the partners since violet has been met the elements of Section 1 of the Partnership Act 1892 (NSW). Statutory rules: Section 1 of the Partnership Act 1892 places emphasis on the features of the association among the parties so that it can ascertain that where there existed a partnership. Given the fact that the features provide that evidences that parties carried on the business in common with the objective of earning profit then a relation of partnership will be found to be existing. The parties might for example have made an expression of sharing profits but not the loses and they might have specifically laid down that their relationship cannot be regarded as the partnership relations. This is because one of the parties might be sharing profit as the employee or one of the parties was the provider of the loan who is being reimbursed out of the proceeds generated from the trade. As defined under the Section 2 of the Partnership Act (1892) it lay down the rules that are valuable pointers in ascertaining whether the specific association is considered as the partnership relations. Nevertheless, it must be noted that these procedures are not entirely considered as the determinative of the issue. As decided in the case of Wiltshire v Kuenzli (1945) the law court will generally have regard to all the situations so that it can reach at the true element of the covenant among the parties (McMeeking et al., 2017). It has been determined that the parties that have planned to do all the things would establish them as the partners under the law and no outcome can be given to the acknowledged intent of not becoming a partners. The relationship between in the present context of Violet and Busy Bee Florist Shop will be treated as the partnership under the partnership act since Violet satisfied definition that has been contained in the Partnership Act 1982. The circumstance that demeanor of the parties namely Violet reflected a partnership that is determined in the Act. The receipt by Violet relating to the share of profits of the business along with the indulgence in the examining the business books and quarterly business statements represents that evidences that Violet will be regarded as the partner of the business. Therefore, Violet along with Rosy and Mary will be held accountable for the loans that is taken from the friendly bank. Conclusion: From the above stated discussion it can be evidently put forward that Sonny is not considered to be partner of the Busy Bee Florist Shop and does not have any kind of liability to pay the debt to the Friendly Bank in relation to the Busy Bee Florist Shop. However, Violet will be considered as the partner of Busy Bee Florist Shop and will held accountable for the debts and obligations of the firm to Friendly Bank since Violet satisfies the elements of Section 1 of the Partnership Act 1892 (NSW). Reference List: Blackett-Ord, M., Haren, S. (2015).Partnership Law. Bloomsbury Publishing. Calabretta, S., May, B. (2016). Winding-up companies in a partnership.Australian Restructuring Insolvency Turnaround Association Journal,28(4), 30. Chen, V., Ramsay, I., Welsh, M. A. (2016). Corporate law reform in Australia: An analysis of the influence of ownership structures and corporate failure. Cohen, G. M. (2017). Law and Economics of Agency and Partnership.The Oxford Handbook of Law and Economics: Volume 2: Private and Commercial Law, 399. Corkery, J., Mikalsen, M., Allan, K. (2017).Corporate social responsibility: The good corporation. Centre for Commercial Law. Fleischer, H. (2017). The Law of Close Corporations. InGeneral Reports of the XIXth Congress of the International Academy of Comparative Law Rapports Gnraux du XIXme Congrs de l'Acadmie Internationale de Droit Compar(pp. 319-350). Springer Netherlands. Gretton, G., Steven, A. (2017).Property, Trusts and Succession. Bloomsbury Publishing. Kumar, A. (2016). 39_Textbook on Indian Partnership Act with Limited Liability Partnership Act 2010. Latimer, P., (2016). Repudiation of Partnership Contracts. McMeeking, K. P., Baskerville, R., Sim, D. (2017). Partnership law and its spawn: Did LLP deliver on its promises?. Moll, D. K. (2015). Shareholder Oppression and the New Louisiana Business Corporation Act.Hous. Bus. Tax LJ,15, 206. Mukherjee, N. K. (2015).The Law of Partnership with Special Reference to British India. Norbury, M. (2017). Tax cases: The perplexing partnership interest.Taxation in Australia,51(11), 631. Singh, A. (2015). Company law. Winship, P. (2015). Drafting General Partnership Laws on the'Aggregate'or'Entity'Theory.
Monday, April 20, 2020
Sunday, March 15, 2020
Critical factors that made the Capetian dynasty so powerful Essays Critical factors that made the Capetian dynasty so powerful Paper Critical factors that made the Capetian dynasty so powerful Paper Essay Topic: Claim Of Fact History There are several factors to be considered when discussing the consolidation of the powers of the Capetian Kings. This essay seeks to outline and discuss three critical factors that made the Capetian dynasty so powerful. These include; marketing the image of kingship through anointing, agricultural development and the importance of succession. The first of the influential powers, which marked out kings, was their anointment. The Church consecrated the king; the ointment using holy oil, the kings where seen to act as a bridge between God and the people a king would be the chosen one of God. This einforced the religious image of the monarchy. The dukes of Francia were undeniably kings, along with all the prestige this brought. The Capetians above all other European monarchs integrated spirituality into their self-image the kings were marked out to rule. Louis VI and Louis VII made themselves into the most Christian kings. French kings received noticeably better reviews than other monarchs of their time, adored by their people. The capetians certainly used their ties to the Church to their advantage. The kings claimed to possess powers of miracles; the water Robert the Pious (996-1031) had ashed his hands with cured a beggar of his blindness. These type of tales created hysteria, fascination and the kings where seen as cult figures. The kings where becoming more beloved by the common people. To them, the Kings were their only protectors. This religious image proved extremely beneficial. Developments such as these strengthened the position of the kings. The second main influence when considering the power of Capetian Kings and definitely a related development throughout this period is the great agricultural production. The apetian initially controlled only the duchy of France (Paris and Orleans) but owing to a shrewd and persistent policy of annexation their jurisdiction progressively extended to other regions. This, for the first time now could convert the latent fertility of the soils of northern France, and especially in the Ile-de-France, into great wealth. The Ile-de-France was the centre of the kings domain, the land was relatively small but of significant importance, with an excellent location surrounding cultural Paris- the capital of western Europe- accessible transport links and the University- attracting many students. This gave the king the opportunity to tax this popular area, thus creating revenue. This localized area was the basis to rapid grow and future expansion of agricultural expansion and trade. This was seen to be an economic revolution with the expansion of lands, fairs and markets, tools and mills. With climatic changes and rapid advanced farming techniques saw the demand in economic developments. Its manifestations varied from region to region, and time scales ere widely different, but overall it is clear that by the time of Philip 1s reign land clearance was increasing, villages and monastric communities expanding, long-distance trade growing as the demand for luxury goods gradually increased, local markets multiplying and coinage circulating widely in much of France. The demand led to land clearing. The pressure of an expanding population and the stimulus of better agricultural techniques now caused lan d to be cleared and reclaimed from the forests for farming. The final factor but just as important as to the consolidation of powers of the Capetians as family and dynasty became so strong is due to succession particularly fortunate as well as clever. The capetians had the infinite advantage of being a long-lived clan. Aside from Hugh Capet himself the first of seven Capetian kings to all rule for over twenty- five years a piece- as well as Philip I reigning for almost half a century. This was the beginning of the succession from father to son; the continuation of succession was vitally important which kept a certain loyalty within the family. The throne was unlikely to be challenged. They also had the good fortune and shrewd match-making-and-breaking to secure themselves and their male heirs. The royal policy of crowning the son in his Fathers lifetime was carried out extremely smoothly. One place the Capetians certainly did find difficulty in maintaining their position was in the indisputable fact that their house had usurped the throne from existing Carolingians. Without a break in the succession, however, it became increasingly difficult to foresee a return to the old bloodline, especially with some judicious marriages on the part of the capetians. The old 4 History Of Medieval Europe p189. 5 France In Middle Ages regime confirmed a central fact about the way the capetians saw themselves, the capetians genuinely saw themselves to be legitimate successors to his title, especially as time went on. Survival, despite the precarious situation of the late tenth century, was something, which was becoming more and more certain as the dynasty progressed. The capetians as a family and as a dynasty became so strong due to many factors but land holdings, anointment and succession all demonstrate the crucial role in which they played n the development of their powers and of the dynasty. All were well thought out and very clever. The increase of agricultural development converted into genuine wealth and prosperity. The shrewd thinking and aggressive tactics of succession securing themselves and their heirs to the throne and the importance of anointment and their connections to the Church had on developing their reputations and popularity. All three factors clearly demonstrate and provide support in the consolidation of the powers of the capetian kings.
Friday, February 28, 2020
Review - Article Example According to the author, Walter WhiteÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts serve as the lessons of history to the pioneers of the new NAACP Hollywood bureau (Cripps 116). The author indicates that both agencies (the old and the new bureau) shared a common purpose (that is, to influence the moviemaking field at its starting place), however, their tactics were different because their assaults began at different times. NAACP led by White was an alien force originating from the East that attempted to lay siege on Hollywood because its entire institutional foundation Ã¢â¬Å"served to deny African American life and culture a place on the screen, save for a caricature inherited from historyÃ¢â¬ (Cripps 116). The present NAACP bureau is equated to a coalition of black elements of craft guilds and studio arts that seek to improve the rewards of membership. In other words, the aim of the association is to penetrate Hollywood past studio crafts into commercial Hollywood (Cripps 116). Both bureaus have attempted to make the presence of African Americans felt in Hollywood. However, the tactics used by the old bureau presents major problems that the new bureau has to evade if it has to succeed. The voice of White only Ã¢â¬Å"spoke to the situation of the studios themselves, and none spoke to the plight of the black actorsÃ¢â¬ (Cripps 122). Thus, White was accused of threatening the livelihood of the African Americans and meddling in affairs that he barely understood. The article uses media imagery to illustrate its points. For instance, media imagery reveals the stalemate between NAACP and its allies about tactics that are acceptable. Walter White suggested the creation of an NAACP Hollywood bureau that was to stand against pejorative stereotyping of the African Americans in moviemaking. However, the liberal allies saw his move as suppression and the black actors accused him of trying